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Training Within Industry: The Missing link of lean – Part III

This article is in continuation of the article posted earlier on July 21st and 28th July which focused on Job Instruction & Job Methods:

Now let’s learn more about Job Relations

FOUNDATIONS FOR GOOD RELATIONS

Let Each Worker Know How He/ She is getting along

Figure out what you expect of the person point out ways to improve

Given Credit When Due

  • Look for extra or unusual performance
  • Tell the person while it’s “hot”

Tell people in Advance about Charges that Will Affect Them

  • Tell them why if possible
  • Work with them to accept the change

Make Best Use of Each Person’s Ability

  • Look for abilities not now being used
  • Never stand in a person’s way

Steps:

Step 1 – GET THE FACTS

  • Review the record
  • Find out what rules & customs apply
  • Talk with the individuals concerned
  • Get opinions & feelings

Be sure you have the whole story

Step 2 – WEIGH & DECIDE

  • Fit the facts together
  • Consider their bearings on each other
  • What possible actions are there?
  • Check practices & policies
  • Consider objective & effect on individual
  • Group & production

Don’t jump to solutions

Step 3 – TAKE ACTION

  • Are you going to handle this yourself?
  • Do you need help in handling?
  • Should you refer this to your supervisor?
  • What the timing of your action

Don’t pass the buck

Step 4 – CHECK RESULTS

  • How soon will you follow-up?
  • How often will you need to check?
  • Watch for changes in output, attitudes & Relationships.

Did you action help production

Acknowledgement: Courtesy: TWI

To visit our website click here.


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Training within Industry: The missing link of lean – Part II

This article is in continuation of the article posted earlier on July 21st which focused on Job Instruction.

Now lets learn more about Job Methods:

Job Methods

A practical plan to help you produce greater quantities of quality products in less time by making the best use of the Manpower, Machines & Materials now available

Step 1 – BREAK DOWN THE JOB

  1. List all details of the job exactly as done in the Current Method.
  2. Be sure details include everything;
  • Material Handling
  • Machine Work
  • Hand Work

Step 2 – QUESTION EVERY DETAIL

  1. Use these types of questions;
  • Why is it necessary?
  • What is the Purpose?
  • Where should it be done?
  • When should it be done?
  • Who is the best qualified to do it?
  • How is the ‘best way’ to do it?
  1. Question the following at the same time:

Materials, Machines, Equipment, Tools, Product Design, Workplace Layout, Movement, Safety, Housekeeping

Step 3 – DEVELOP THE NEW METHOD

  1. ELIMINATE unnecessary details
  2. COMBINE details when practical
  3. REARRANGE details for the better sequence
  4. SIMPLIFY all necessary details

 

To make job easier & safer to do;

  • Put materials, tools & equipment in to the best position & within convenient reach for the operator
  • Use gravity feed hoppers or drop delivery chutes whenever possible
  • Make effective use of both hands
  • Use jigs or fixtures instead of hands
  1. Work out your ideas WITH OTHERS
  2. WRITE UP the proposed new method

 

Step 4 – APPLY THE NEW METHOD

  1. SELL your proposal to the boss
  2. SELL the new method to the operators
  3. Get FINAL APPROVAL of all concerned on Safety, Quality, Quantity, Cost, etc.
  4. PUT the new method TO WORK. Use it until a better way is developed.
  5. Give CREDIT where credit is due.

 

Acknowledgement:  Courtesy: TWI

 


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Kaizen® workshop at SAIL

SAIL organized a workshop on Kaizen®.

Session at sail on 18th July 2014 18_07_2014_016_027_004

 

Sensei Masaaki Imai, regarded as the father of continuous improvement, lectured on various aspects of Kaizen®. Chairman SAIL C.S. Verma, along with Secretary Steel G. Mohan Kumar, directors of SAIL, and business excellence teams from across SAIL plants attended the conclave.

To read more click here

Times of India ePaper – Please refer page no 18


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Training within Industry: The missing link of lean

Today organizations are aiming for lean gains using TWI techniques originally developed in the 1940s.

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Before learning more about TWI, please prepare yourself to think in a radically different way about continuous improvement. If you are working on a lean conversion, but have not heard of Training Within Industry (TWI) or If you think there is something missing in your lean transformation, there probably is, and it that something is probably TWI thinking.

TWI is a series of three training programs that teach fundamental skills everyone needs if she/he is to be successful. It gives your managers the skill to transform the culture of your organization, regardless of industry; manufacturing, healthcare, construction – anywhere a person does a job. “TWI helps a company or an organization change its culture to that of lean. It doesn’t give all the lean answers [but] what it does do is get everyone thinking the same way,” says Don Dinero, principal of Round Pond Consulting Service and author of Training Within Industry: The Foundation of Lean. “TWI gets to the fundamentals that allow you to start thinking in a lean way.”

TWI is an essential element of Lean and continuous improvement programs around the world including the Toyota Production System.

What are the training programs?

Each of the J-Programs (J meant “Job”) was delivered in its standard and repeatable form to others who, in turn, repeated the process — delivered it in its standard and repeatable form. The programs address the processes of instructing people on the best way to perform jobs, continuous improvement, and improved communication and leadership skills. Below given are the three J-programs:

• Job Instruction – Transfer of Skills

• Job Methods – Reduce Waste

• Job Relations – Personal Relationships

This article focuses on the first J-program i.e. Job Instruction.

Job Instruction (JI) was the TWI J-program rolled out first. Training was the most immediate need. The job instruction shown below was directly based on Charles Allen’s 4-step training method, which dated from early from the 20th century. The objective of job instruction was to teach supervisor how to develop a well – trained workforce. If they are skilled in instruction, supervisor can reduce defects, rejects, rework, accident and damages to tools and equipment. But the supervisor are not skilled in instruction, no matter how knowledgeable or skilled they are in the work itself, they cannot effectively pass it on to others. Human errors go unchecked and uncorrected.

Job instruction teaches supervisor how to breakdown jobs for instruction. JI thus develops skill making work easy to understand. Step 1 emphasizes first preparing an operator to learn, followed by properly demonstrating work using a job breakdown which identifies its important steps and key points. As trainees progress to performing trial runs, the instructor observes them; than tappers of coaching while continuing to follow-up.

TWI (Job Instruction) How to Instruct

Step 1 – PREPARE THE WORKER

Put the person at ease
State the job
Find out the person already knows
Get the person interested in learning the job
Place the person in correct position

Step 2- PRESENT THE OPERATION

Tell, show & illustrate one important step at a time
Do it again stressing Key points
Do it again stating reasons for key points
Instruct clearly, completely & patiently but don’t give them more information than they can master at one time.

Step 3- TRY OUT PERFORMANCE

Have a person to do a job – correct errors
Have the person explained each important step to you as they do the job again
Have the person explained each key point to you as they do the job again
Have the person explain reasons for key points to you as they do the job again
Make sure the person understands
Continue until you know they know.

Step – 4 FOLLOW UP

Put the person on their own
Designate who the person goes to for help
Check on the person frequently
Encourage questions
Taper off extra coaching & close follow up

How to Get Ready to Instruct

Before instructing people how to do a job:

  1. MAKE A TIME TABLE FOR TRAINING

Who to train……
For which work……
By what date……

  1. BREAK DOWN THE JOB           

List Important Steps
Select key points
Safety factors are always key points

  1. GET EVERYTHING READY

The proper equipment, tool, materials & what ever needed to aid instruction

  1. ARRANGE THE WORKSITE

Neatly, as in actual working conditions

Acknowledgement:  Courtesy: TWI

To visit our website click here


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Phases of Team Development

10

Requirements for good Teamwork

 

 7

Goal Oriented Behavior in Teams

  • Vision
  • Clear goals
  • Clear roll definition
  • Agreed actions
  • Team commitment
  • Creativity
  • Group decisions
  • Mutual respect
  • Clear terminology
  • Control of standards and time
  • Conformity
  • Auditing
  • Proactive and personal responsibility
  • …and of course job satisfaction

2

Cooperation in Team

11

 

7 Characteristics for an excellent Team Leader

9

 

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Top 10 Mistakes in Behavior Change…..and some way you can fix them

Behavior change

1. Relying on willpower for long-term change
    Imagine Willpower doesn’t exist.
    That’s step 1 to a better future.

2. Attempting big leaps instead of baby steps
    Seek tiny successes one after another.

3. Ignoring how environment shapes behaviors
    Change your context & you change your life.

4. Trying to stop old behaviors instead of creating new ones
    Focus on action, not avoidance.

5. Blaming Failures on lack of motivation
    Solution: make the behavior easier to do.

6. Underestimating the power of triggers
    No behavior happens without a trigger.

7. Believing that information leads to action
    We humans aren’t so rational.

8. Focusing on abstract goals more than concrete behaviors
    Abstract: Get in shape
    Concrete: walk 15 min. today

9. Seeking to change a behavior forever, not for a short time.
    A fixed period works better than “forever”

10. Assuming that Behavior change is difficult.
      Behavior change is not so hard when you have the right process.

Acknowledgement:  Stanford University’s Persuasive Tech Lab

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Kaizen Institute India (KII) presents Learning Opportunities

Kaizen College (worldwide executive education & training arm of Kaizen Institute) announces its public training program for the month of August.

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Some visuals of public training program concluded in the month of June.

Visuals of June

To know more or to register for the training program please click here


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Operational Excellence Summit

OE Summit

The Economic Times announces the Economic Times Operational Excellence summit. This event is organized by Economic Times & Kaizen Institute India will be acting as a knowledge partner for this event.

To read more or to download the brochure please click here.


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Lean warehousing – From complexity to simplicity

As you study your warehousing operations, you should be able to identify every activity that absorb resources without creating additional value. The question that you all should ask to yourselves is how much more profitable could the warehouse be if we eliminated the errors or waste from the processes?

Poor utilization of space is a kind of waste. Space is money and it is paid for every month. If extra space is acquired when the existing warehouses are not utilized effectively, the waste is obvious.

warehouse

Although staging of product at the shipping and receiving docks is accepted as a necessity today, could it be eliminated? Since warehousing is nothing more than the management of space and time, reducing waste starts with identifying the poor use of both.

Lean warehousing is the elimination of wasted space and wasted time with a systematic approach. It includes,

  • Improved flow of material
  • Better utilization of available cubic space
  • Creation of perfect orders.

A warehouse adds value of time, place and quantity that is not available from the manufacturer or supplier. Most warehouses receive large, infrequent loads and deliver smaller loads more frequently.

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Focus on FLOW

Material flow (MF) is the description of the transportation of raw materials, pre-fabricates, parts, components, integrated objects and finally products as a flow of entities.

Benefits after optimization of material flow

  • Purchasing cost will decrease
  • Quality of product will increase
  • Manufacturing waste will decrease
  • Production will increase
  • Product cost will decrease
  • Customer satisfaction will increase

“10 Golden Rules of Storage”

5 Freedoms

  • Search free
  • Count free
  • Air free
  • Bend free
  • Climb free

2 Hygiene Factors

  • Well lighted
  • Well Ventilated

3 Good Practices

  • First in First Out
  • Point of Use storage
  • Heavy & tall Items on bottom of shelves

Opportunities for improvement in warehouse

Outbound

  • Order booking Process
  • Order receipt & entry process
  • Order picking process
  • Truck loading process

Inbound

  • Goods receipt process

Stock Management

  • Defective Goods Management Process
  • Returned Goods management process
  • Non Moving & Slow Moving Management Process
  • Excessive Transportation, Motion & searching of Goods in Storage
  • Storage Methods are Floor Based
  • Stock Outs & Loss of Sales

Warehouse is a part of supply chain

If we improve warehouse stand alone

  1. We will get substantial, but sub optimal benefits
  2. Sustainability will be tough

Lean thinking will require a conversion from top-down leadership to bottom-up initiatives.

 

 


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CREATING EFFECTIVE CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Creating the culture you want and need is no longer an option. It is a business necessity – Connors and Smith.

Signs of a Lack of Alignment

• People remain silent and don’t voice their opinion when you call for a decision.
• You keep being surprised by the actions people take because they are inconsistent
with the agreed-upon direction.
• You don’t see tangible progress on an issue when by all rights you should be
moving forward throughout the organization.
• In meetings, people keep bringing up issues that you thought were resolved.
• People complain, make excuses and blame others for lack of progress.
• You observe a lack of ownership and enthusiasm for implementing a course of action
that has been set.
• People state that they disagree with decision or a direction that has already been
taken.

Source: Journey to the Emerald City: Achieve a competitive edge by creating a culture of accountability, by R. Connors and T. Smith, 1999, Para mus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press.

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What needs to be done?

The first critical step toward change is to realize the need for change. Once the Executive Team acknowledged the significant problems facing the organization, Karen Meyer-Cain worked closely with the group, facilitating the discussion about employee satisfaction. The second critical step toward change is buy-in. The Executive Team agreed on a number of new programs that would reward associates for their accomplishments and would, in turn, reinforce employee behaviors that were supportive of the company’s mission and business goals. The third critical step is the creation of a goal. The Executive Team agreed to build a culture that provided and rewarded challenging work leading to personal accomplishments, business success and work/life balance, versus simply hard work, long hours and personal sacrifice.

The Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change

1.ESTABLISHING A SENSE OF URGENCY
•Examining the market and competitive realities
•Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises or major opportunities
2.CREATING THE GUIDING COALITION
•Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change
•Getting the group to work together as a team
3.DEVELOPING A VISION AND STRATEGY
•Creating a vision to help direct the change effort
•Developing strategies for achieving that vision
4.COMMUNICATING THE CHANGE VISION
•Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies
•Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees
5. EMPOWERING BROAD-BASED ACTION
•Getting rid of obstacles
•Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision
•Encouraging risk-taking and nontraditional ideas, activities and actions
6. GENERATING SHORT-TERM WINS
•Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins”
•Creating those wins
•Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made wins possible
7. CONSOLIDATING GAINS AND PRODUCING MORE CHANGE
•Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures and policies that
don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation vision
•Hiring, promoting and developing people who can implement the change vision
•Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents
8. INSTITUTIONALIZING NEW APPROACHES IN THE CULTURE
•Creating better performance through customer- and productivity-oriented
behavior, more and better leadership, and more effective management
•Articulating the connections between new behaviors and organizational success
•Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession

Source: Leading change, by J. P. Ko t t e r, 1996, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.